All you need to know about colorectal cancer

All you need to know about colorectal cancer
All you need to know about colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a malignant tumor of the colon and rectum, which develops from the numerous glands located in the structural wall. The main risk factors are: ulcero-hemorrhagic rectocolitis, and heredocolateral antecedents. Food fats and spices also play an important role in the disease, and a rich diet has a protective role. It is worth noting that not all people with polyps develop cancer and that the polyps growth rate extends over several years and only a few factors can make these polyps malignant. The incidence of the disease increases from the age of 40-45, reaching a maximum of 75 years without the predominance of sex. In the incipient phase, the patients show no manifestation, the signs revealing intestinal transit disorders, such as the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation episodes, reluctant but frequent repetitions.

Abdominal pain also makes their presence felt, evolving in progressive accents and yielding through brutal emission or gas. Other symptoms present: - consistency changes of the seat, - the shape of the modified seats (become creased), - pain at the time of defecation, - bloating and - weight loss without weight loss diet, - asthenia and permanent fatigue. In advanced cases and late detection occurs also the tumor mass, which can be palpated through the abdominal wall, evolving with the alteration of the general state. After the disease is diagnosed, special investigations will be performed to determine exactly the cause of the tumor, its type and degree. is one of the procedures commonly used in cancer detection or precancerous lesions by introducing a long and flexible tube called a colonoscope, endowed with a video camera, with which the endoscopist can visualize the rectum cavities but also the colon completely.

It is the most recommended investigation by gastroenterologists because certain suspected polyps may be removed during the investigation, but biopsy samples may also be taken in the case of an already formed tumor. Colonoscopy takes about 30 minutes, requires a slight pre-training through evacuation enema, is relatively well supported by patients (sometimes they are slightly sedated by the parenteral route) and requires no more than one day hospitalization for those with affections associated with . is also a diagnostic imaging method by which only the rectum and the distal colon are explored in order to detect the polyps located at the recto-sigmoid junction. If various suspected lesions are detected, a total colonoscopy is required. It is worth mentioning that these investigations are recommended to be repeated for 10 years in the case of colonoscopy and 5 years for sigmoidoscopy.

Following these two procedures there may be small abdominal pains that sometimes cede to antispasmodic or even small bleeding in the stool may occur if biopsies have been taken. is a specific test that detects the presence of blood in faeces, but is not perceived by the naked eye, but only microscopically. In order for the test to be relevant, it is advisable to follow a small diet 3 days before, avoiding the following foods: red beetroot, radish, cabbage, tomato, cauliflower, and medicines such as aspirin, anti-inflammatories, . If the result is positive, colonoscopy will be recommended. In some situations, false negative results may also occur.

In these cases, cancer diagnosis should not be excluded because the tumor may not have bleeding during harvesting and it is preferable to repeat. There are also other methods of investigation such as fecal DNA test, digital rectal exam, irrigoscopy, CT colonography, immunohistochemical febtest (TIF) test, but these are used and recommended in situations where the other three methods do not provide enough information for diagnosing the diagnosis. TreatmentThe treatment consists of a surgical procedure that removes the affected colon (colectomy), and if it affects the rectum it intervenes surgically and on that part. Sometimes radiotherapy is associated, and if it exists, especially in the liver it is done. The main complications are related to tumor extension which may lead to vaginal communication in affected women, bladder, occlusions or perforations with the occurrence of generalized infectious peritonitis throughout the abdomen.

Prognosis is good if the diagnosis is done early and if the tumor remains confined to the wall of the rectum, but it can also have a serious prognosis if the form is advanced and metastasizes to other organs. Surveillance is indicated for the presence of present risk factors with systemic resection of any benign polyps. It is indispensable to visit the doctor at the smallest sign. The dose of carcinoembryonic antigen in the blood is also indicated, which allows postoperative surveillance, as there may be recurrence in 10-15% of cases. ConclusionsProphylaxis with you and a balanced consumption of moderately cooked foods, without much added spices, assorted with vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage and making regular.


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